The Moscow Kremlin is located on the Borovitsky hill. The Moscow Kremlin is the largest ancient fortress in Russia. The Kremlin is surrounded by a fortress wall, it includes 20 towers. Each tower has its own name and its history.
Tip: listen to the Spasskaya tower chimes for sure.
The History of the Moscow Kremlin
According to scientists, at the end of II Millennium BC there was the first settlement on the territory of the Borovitsky hill.
The First Moscow Kremlin, wooden, was built in 1339-1340, during the reign of the Moscow Prince Ivan Kalita (his nickname means “Money Bag”).
After a few years the new Kremlin of white stone was built instead of the wooden one (it damaged much in the fire). For several centuries the Moscow Kremlin is constantly updated and improved.
The Sights of the Moscow Kremlin
The Armoury Chamber
The Museum contains a great number of precious objects owned by the Russian court: both objects made by Russian craftspeople, and gifts from foreign countries.
The Armoury chamber exhibits weapon, armor, military awards, state regalia, expensive fabricsof golden network, the official Church and secular clothes, horse trappings, a rare but fine collection of horse-drawn carriages etc.
Among the exhibits you can see The Hat of Monomakh also called the Golden Cap, as well as The throne of Ivan the Terrible, covered with plates of ivory.
All exhibits have the great art and historical value and they are in very good condition.
The Diamond Fund of the Russia
The Diamond Fund dates back to the Russian Crown treasury instituted by Emperor Peter I of Russia.
In the Diamond Fund you can see the rare and unique jewels of Russia: precious stones, state regalia, insignia, and the ceremonial decoration monarchs and members of the Imperial family. It is common knowledge the Russian Imperial court was one of the most luxurious in Europe.
In addition, the Fund exhibits the collection of different crowns, these crown collections are very rare in all treasure-troves. Among them – there is the incredible Great Imperial Crown, decorated with about 5,000 diamonds and 75 large pearls, arranged in splendid two rows, and a large precious red spinel weighing 398,72 carats on the top.
In addition, there you can see two famous diamonds: the Orlov Diamond (189,62 carats) and the Shah Diamond (88.7 carats).
The famous collection of Faberge eggs is also in the diamond Fund in Moscow. The eggs were created by Peter Carl Faberge and his company from 1885 to 1917.
The Cathedral Square of the Kremlin
It is the oldest square of the Moscow Kremlin. On the Cathedral Square there are the Assumption Cathedral (this Cathedral was erected on the spot of the by then very dilapidated first stone Assumption Cathedral (1326-1327): that one was built by Ivan Kalita, it was errectedeven earlier than the first walls of the Moscow Kremlin), Cathedral of the Dormition, Cathedral of the Archangel, and Cathedral of the Annunciation, the Palace of Facets (the throne hall of the Russian rulers), the Church of the Deposition of the Robe and the Church of the Twelve Apostles, Ivan the Great Bell Tower and the Patriarch’s Chambers.
The Cathedral Square of Moscow Kremlin began to form during the reign of Ivan Kalita. In 1485-1495 the square wasupdate by Italian masters (Russian architectural traditions were preserved). All the cathedrals were update. All ancient relics and objects of the inner decoration of the churches preserved and transferred to the new ones.
The Assumption Cathedral is famous as the site of solemn coronation of all the Russian tsars. E.g. the Russian Tsar Ivan IV as well as the last Russian imperator Nicolas II were coroneted there.
In summer time, the square is also the scene of the daily changing of the Horse Guards.
The Moscow Kremlin at Present
Nowdays, there is the residence of the President of the Russian Federation on the territory of the Moscow Kremlin.
Quite often in spoken Russian Moscow goes under another name. This nickname is a “White Stone Capital”. The most popular explanation of that is that the Moscow Kremlin was built of white stone. In addition, until the end of XIX century the walls of the Moscow Kremlin were being regularly whitewashed.
The Moscow Kremlin walls changed their color long ago, but the name “White Stone Capital” is used in the Russian language.
How to Reach the Moscow Kremlin
The Moscow Kremlin is easy to reach by metro: metro stations “Ploshad Revolutsii”, “Teatralnaya”, “Alexandrovsky sad”, “Okhotny Ryad”, “Biblioteka Imeni Lenina”.
It is interesting, but there was no entrance fee in the Kremlinupto 1917, as the Russian emperors visited Moscownot often. At that timethe Russian court was in St. Petersburg. Until 1955 the Kremlin was closed to the public.
To discover Russia with Alexey Gureev