In different opinions of the rulers of different forms of political organization – the socialist and the capitalist – a lot of hatred came out.
But sometimes a cold war between the socialist system (USSR) and the capitalist system (USA) was interrupted peace initiatives.
Already in the works of the Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin it got pointed out that it is possible for different political systemsto coexist peacefully.
In this sense, every nation in each country has to decide what kind of political system to choose.
The principle of peaceful coexistence states explicitly that it is possible to settledisputes by negotiating, not interfering in the internal affairs of other countries, as well as by promoting cooperation in economic and cultural spheres.
This principle became the most known when it was promoted by the Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev.
According to the principle of peaceful coexistence there should be a reasonable balance of interests.
Was this principle carried out? No, it wasn’t. Suffice it to recall a massive attack by the United States on Vietnam that had a different world order. Or another example – the suppression of the Hungarian uprising by the USSR tanks.
Nevertheless, during the Cold War enough facts of peaceful initiatives between the USSR and the USAhave accumulated. Those peaceful agreementswere not always and not fully implemented. But just the fact of those peace talks already cooled some hot tempers.
Cold War Facts Related to Peace Initiatives
- In 1954 the Soviet Union expressed a desire to join NATO. But the Soviet Union was denied that right.
- In 1956 at the 20th Congress of the Communist Party (the only party) in Moscow, the Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev approved the thesis of renouncing the export of revolution by force of arms in order to ensure peaceful coexistence.
- In 1956 the Soviet Union offered to sign a non-aggression pact between NATO and the Warsaw Pact countries. The initiative was rejected.
- In 1957 the Soviet Union offered the United States and Great Britain to cease nuclear testing.
- In 1958 Khrushchev offered the United States, France and the UK to turn Berlin into a free demilitarized city. Khrushchev’s proposal was rejected.
- In 1959 the Soviet Union proposed to establish a nuclear-free zone in the Balkans and the Adriatic. The proposal was rejected by the Western countries.
- In 1959 Khrushchev proposed to the UN a plan for disarmament.
- In 1961, in Vienna, the Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev proposed to the US President Kennedy to declare Berlin a free city, as well as to ban nuclear tests. His proposals were rejected.
- In 1962 the Soviet Union and the United States signed an Agreement on the peaceful use of outer space.
- In 1963 an agreement was signed that banned testing of nuclear weapons on the ground, in water and in the air.
- In 1963, between the Kremlin and the White House a direct line was established to connect the two leaders in times of crisis (as a result of the Cuban missile crisis).
- In 1964 the Soviet Union with the participation of Norway built Borisoglebskaya HES that provides electricity to the arctic regions of the USSR and Norway. In the same year, the Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev opened the Aswan Dam (Egypt).
- In 1969 the Soviet Union and the United States ratified the Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.
- In 1972, 163 countries signed the Convention on the prohibition of the development, production and stockpiling of bacteriological (biological) and toxin weapons and on their destruction. Thus, the entire class of weapons was banned.
- In 1974 an Agreement on the limitations of underground nuclear weapon tests was signed.
- In 1976 a Treaty to ban nuclear explosions of more than 150 kilotons was signed.
- In 1979 an Agreement to limit strategic arms of the USSR and the USA was signed. According to the agreement, the number of strategic delivery vehicles was set at 2,400 units. However, neither the United States nor the Soviet Union honored the agreement in full, although they complied with it.
- In 1988 the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and the US President Reagan signed the Treaty on nuclear medium-range missiles.
- In 1988, at the UN session, the last Soviet leader Gorbachev announced a unilateral initiative to reduce the size of the Soviet Army and reduce conventional weapons.
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