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Confrontation Between John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev: Cuban Missile Crisis Facts

Well-known and little-known 1962 Cuban missile crisis facts.

To tell you about the origins of the Cuban confrontation between the USSR and the USA, we will start from the year 1960.

1.    In 1960, the United States suddenly discovers next to it an independent country – Cuba. The United States impose an embargo against Cuba. Cuba can no longer sell sugar as well as buy oil. Life in the country virtually stops.
2.    The next fact: in response to the American embargo against Cuba, the Soviet Union agrees to buy Cuban sugar. USSR also promises to send Cuba oil. But the USSR has no tankers – Italy offers to help causing discontent of the USA.
3.    The Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev hints at defending Cuba in the event of an attack by the United States.
4.    In 1960-1961 the United States are preparing an invasion of Cuba. For this purpose they selected Cuban immigrants that are trained and formed into groups in the United States. The immigrants were armed to the teeth, including heavy weapons and American tanks. They were also supplied with modern airplanes, but some immigrants refused to fly – so the American pilots took over.
5.    In 1961 everything was ready, and the United Statesinvade Cuba. The American plan “Pluton” was quite simple: Cuban immigrants with the support of the aviation and US Navy would capture a small portion of Cuba in the area of ​​the Bay of Pigs, and on behalf of the “Provisional Government of Cuba” request for large-scale military assistance from the United States.

6.    Preparation of the attack was not news to Cuba. Cuba turned to the United Nations (no response). At the time of the attack Cuban leadership quickly focused and within three dayscompletely administered a defeat upon the invaders. They shot down at least a dozen of US aircrafts, sank several ships, killed or captured around 1,300 people (Americans and Cuban immigrants). Undertaken by the Americans attempts to evacuate turned unsuccessful – Cuban military forces fired a few shellsin the direction of the United States aircraft carriers, and the ships returned back to the sea.

7.    A year later, the United States government paid to Cuba the designated by Cuba reparations in the amount of 53 million dollars (in the form of food supplies and medicine) in exchange for the return of prisoners of war to the American soil.

8.    Declassified documents show that the United States never stopped planning the attack, and among other things they were considering:

  • Organizing mass terrorist attacks in Florida and Washington,
  • Sinking a ship with Cuban refugees
  • Making airstrikes on Cuba’s neighboring states using aircrafts repainted in the colors of Cuba
  • Destructing a passenger plane over Cuban territory

It was planned to accuse Cuba in each of these activities in order to create a pretext for the United States to attack Cuba.

9.    The Soviet Union was aware of the American plans to invade Cuba. When the United States conducted their exercises of massive landing operation, the Soviet leadership realized that it could wait no longer. In addition, in Turkey nuclear missiles were placed that could reach Moscow in just 10 minutes.

10.  In 1962 the Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev decides to send to Cuba nuclear weapons with the most serious support.

JFK_meeting_Khrushchev,_3_June_1961

US President John F. Kennedy shaking hands with Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, 3 June 1961 /  NARA’s website / Author work of the United States Federal Government

11.  Soviet weapons for Cuba included: a few dozen nuclear medium-range and long-range missiles (they could cover almost the entire territory of the United States). In addition, they also sent tactical nuclear missiles “Luna”, tanks, squadrons of fighters and bombers, air defense missile systems, as well as patrol ships and submarines, seven of which had 3 nuclear missiles each on board. The Soviet force grouping amounted to 51,000 people. Basically, it was enough to create a nuclear apocalypse in a single country (the United States).

12.  Sending nuclear missiles to Cuba was done in unprecedented secrecy. Sending Soviet troops was disguised as military training… in the north, in the Arctic. Captains of the ships that took troops on board in the north of the USSR for several days did not know their real destination.

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