Fyodor Dostoevsky returned from the forced-labor camp and subsequent exile (serving as a private in the army), wrote several remarkable pieces on social issues, but his main works were yet to come.
Journey that changed everything
In 1862-1863 Dostoevsky visited England, France, Germany, Italy and other countries. He could see the consequences of bourgeois revolutions: a deep social stratification, poverty, focus of all relationships on money.
Dostoevsky wanted for Russia to take a different route. He saw for Russia a way towards “paradise on Earth”, devoid of the negative aspects of the bourgeois.
The most famous novels by Dostoevsky
The changing views of Dostoevsky – this is “Russian socialism”. But in contrast with his previous beliefs in “utopian socialism,” this term in the voice of Dostoevsky becomes connected to Christian content.
Dostoevsky rejects reason as interfering with everything, and challenges to accept spiritual freedom in the Christian tradition. With denying by people being slaves to money and goods, towards the development of spiritual freedom. Interestingly, these ideas with a few modifications today are extremely popular both in Europe and in North America (under different names, of course).
Unlike many other thinkers, the mental outlook of Dostoevsky is not speculative, but pained by the writer himself.
Dostoevsky published “Notes from Underground” (1864), “Crime and Punishment” (1866), “The Idiot” (1868), “Teenager” (1871), “The Possessed” (1872) and, perhaps, his most significant work, the novel “The Brothers Karamazov “(1880).
Unfortunately, there is a widespread opinion that the prose of Dostoyevsky is filled with pessimism and despair. In particular, Sigmund Freud had fallen for the same mistake.
However, this is a superficial understanding. Dostoevsky novels are permeated with love and compassion for a human being, with all his joys and sorrows. Love and beauty are the main ideals of Dostoevsky. But the writer did not think that “beauty will save the world”, he believed that “the beauty itself must be saved.”
In his works Dostoevsky is telling us that that no good in the world, no highest goals could be justified if it costs at least one tear of the child.
All the leaders in the modern world should learn that and … re-read Dostoevsky.
Dostoevsky had a strong influence on shaping up many philosophical and psychological teachings, among which particularly stand out the humanistic teachings and Freudianism.